Earlier than the outbreak of battle in April 1861, the yank republic had survived diplomatic and army crises and inner stresses. It weathered tensions with France within the overdue 1790s, a 2d conflict with Britain in 1812–1815, and disputes regarding worldwide boundaries. Political wrangling over monetary troubles together with the tariff, a national bank, and government-supported public works (known as internal improvements inside the nineteenth century) proved divisive however posed no serious threat to the integrity of the Union. In spite of fissures along ethnic and class traces, the general public of american citizens had much in not unusual. They have been white, Christian, spoke English, and shared a heritage forged inside the crucible of the innovative war.
Questions referring to the institution of slavery set the stage for secession and war. Maximum males and females at the time could have agreed with Abraham Lincoln’s declaration in his 2nd Inaugural cope with that slavery “was, by some means, the purpose of the war.” Alexander H. Stephens, the Confederacy’s vp, minced no words when he proclaimed in March 1861 that slavery “became the on the spot purpose of the late rupture and the prevailing revolution” to set up southern independence.