Lincoln had used the event of the Union victory at Antietam to issue a initial Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves within the rebellious states after January 1, 1863. He justified his choice as a wartime measure, and did now not pass thus far as to unfastened the slaves within the border states unswerving to the Union. nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation disadvantaged the Confederacy of the bulk of its hard work forces and positioned international public opinion strongly at the Union side. some 186,000 black soldiers would join the Union military by the time the conflict resulted in 1865, and 38,000 lost their lives.
in the spring of 1863, Hooker’s plans for a Union offensive had been thwarted by means of a wonder attack by means of the majority of Lee’s forces on can also 1, whereupon Hooker pulled his guys again to Chancellorsville. The Confederates won a expensive victory inside the battle that followed, suffering 13,000 casualties (around 22 percentage in their troops); the Union lost 17,000 men (15 percentage).